Biotechnology laboratories were first established at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in the early 1980s, for the purpose of application and development of tissue culture techniques and molecular methods. Micropropagation, embryo and anther culture, as well as various marker systems thus became an integral part of Institute research and breeding programs, conducted on wheat, sunflower, rapeseed, sugar beet, soybean, maize, and other crops.

More than 30 years of research in biotechnology carried out at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops resulted in an idea to unite biotechnology workforce into one organizational unit. The idea was put into practice on 1 April 2012, which marked the establishment of the Biotechnology Department. During the first five years, research team of the Biotechnology Department achieved significant results by participating in national and international projects, completing doctoral studies, attending training and specialization programs, and authoring research papers published in national and international journals. Following the reorganization of the Institute on 1 February 2017, researchers employed at the Biotechnology Department were allocated and assigned to work in various Institute departments according to their area of expertise.

Biotechnology Laboratory was reestablished following the subsequent Institute reorganization in November 2020. The most sophisticated equipment and highly educated research staff were reunited in the Biotechnology Laboratory with an aim to control genetic purity of seed material and assist in the development of top-quality NS cultivars and hybrids. Research and development activities of the department aim to support the current breeding programs and offer solutions for critical issues in breeding and seed production, as well as improving production, storage and processing of the most important crops.